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Definition of Yaws

Yaws: A chronic infectious disease that occurs commonly in the warm, humid regions of the tropics. Yaws is characterized by bumps on the skin of the face, hands, feet, and genital area. Almost all cases of yaws are in children under 15 year...

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Definition of Yeast

Yeast: A group of single-celled fungi that reproduce by budding. Most yeast are harmless (some are used in baking and brewing). Yeast is commonly present on normal human skin and in areas of moisture, such as the mouth and vagina, usually w...

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Definition of Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC)

Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC): A vector (carrier) created and used in the laboratory to clone pieces of DNA. A YAC is constructed from the telomeric, centromeric, and replication origin sequences needed for replication in yeast cells. (...

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Definition of Yeast diaper rash

Yeast diaper rash: Infection in the diaper area of a baby that is caused by a yeast called Candida. Certain conditions, such as antibiotic use or excessive moisture, can upset the balance of microbes and allow an overgrowth of Candida. The...

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Definition of Yeast genome

Yeast genome: All of the genetic information contained in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The genomes of particular nonhuman organisms such as yeast have been studied for a number of reasons including the need to improve sequencing and an...

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Definition of Yeast rash

Yeast rash: A slightly raised pink-to-red rash that is caused by proliferation of yeast, usually in a moist area such as the groin. Yeast rash is most common in infants, but it can also occur on the skin of older children and adults. Treatm...

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Definition of Yeast syndrome

Yeast syndrome: The yeastCandida has been thought to cause a syndrome with a number ofnonspecific problems including fatigue, loss of appetite, headache, short-attention span, depression and all manner ofintestinal irregularities. There is...

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Definition of Yeast vulvitis

Yeast vulvitis: A yeast infection of the external genital organs of the female (the vulva). The vulva includes the labia, clitoris, and the entrance (the "vestibule") to the vagina. Yeast vulvitis commonly goes together with yeast vaginitis...

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Definition of Yellow enzyme, Warburg's

Yellow enzyme, Warburg's: A key respiratory enzyme discovered by the German biochemist Otto Heinrich Warburg (1883-1970), a pioneer in research on the respiration of cells and the metabolism of tumors. Warburg's yellow enzyme is a flavoprot...

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Definition of Yellow enzymes

Yellow enzymes: A group of respiratory enzymes that catalyze reactions in the body permitting cells to respire, to breathe, or in other word, to use oxygen. These biochemical reactions are termed oxidation-reduction reactions. The first yel...

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Definition of Yellow fever

Yellow fever: An acute systemic (bodywide) illness caused by a virus called a Flavivirus. In severe cases, the viral infection causes a high fever, bleeding into the skin, and necrosis (death) of cells in the kidney and liver. The damage do...

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Definition of Yellow jack

Yellow jack: 1) The flag displayed from lazarettos, naval hospitals, and vessels in quarantine. 2) Synonym for yellow fever as, for example, in "...Fernando passed a few weeks recovering from a touch of yellow jack."...

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Definition of Yellow jacket sting

Yellow jacket sting: A sting from a yellow jacket (or other large stinging insects such as bees, hornets and wasps) can trigger allergic reactions ranging from local responses of limited duration to catastrophic general reactions which can...

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Definition of Yersinia

Yersinia: A group of bacteria that appear rod-like under the microscope and include Yersinia pestis (the cause of the bubonic and pneumonic plague), Yersinia entercolitic a (the cause of a disease called yersinosis), and Yersinia pseudotube...

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Definition of Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia enterocolitica: A bacterium that causes an infectious disease called yersiniosis. Yersinia enterocolitica is a member of the Yersinia family of bacteria. Common symptoms of yersiniosis in children (who most often contract the disea...

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Definition of Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pestis: The bacteria that causes the bubonic plague which in the year 541 (as the Black Death) and later in the Middle Ages decimated Europe. The effects of the plague are described in the nursery rhyme "We all fall down." Y. pesti...

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Definition of Yersiniosis

Yersiniosis: An infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Yersinia enterocolitica (and, less often, other forms of Yersinia). The infection can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the age of the person infected. Common symptoms i...

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Definition of Yogurt

Yogurt: A dairy product made by fermented milk with one or more bacterial cultures. It has been used to repopulate the normal bacterial flora of the intestines after antibiotic therapy and associated diarrhea and for treating and preventing...

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Definition of Yttrium

Yttrium: A rare elemental metal. A radioactive form of yttrium is used in radiation therapy and some types of immunotherapy....

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Definition of Yttrium Y 90 ibritumomab tiuxetan

Yttrium Y 90 ibritumomab tiuxetan: An anticancer therapy that is a combination of the radioisotope yttrium-90 and a monoclonal antibody to produce substances that locate and bind to cancer cells. Also called IDEC-Y2B8 monoclonal antibody....

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Definition of Z chromosome

Z chromosome: A sex chromosome in certain animals, such as chickens, turkeys, and moths. In humans, males are XY and females XX, but in animals with a Z chromosome, males are ZZ and females are WZ....

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Definition of ZAP70

ZAP-70: Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70. A member of the protein tyrosine kinase family, ZAP-70 is normally expressed in T cells and natural killer cells and has a critical role in the initiation of T-cell signaling. ZAP-70 is expre...

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Definition of Zebra

Zebra: In medicine, a very unlikely diagnostic possibility. It comes from an old saying used in teaching medical students about how to think logically in regard to the differential diagnosis: 'When you hear hoof beats, think of horses, not...

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Definition of Zeitgeber

Zeitgeber: An environmental agent or event that provides the cue for setting or resetting a biological clock. To be synchronized with our environment, we need the input of Zeitgebers. The most important Zeitgeber in nature is light. Social...

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Definition of Zenker diverticulum

Zenker diverticulum: The most common type of outpouching in the esophagus, due to increased pressure causing the mucous membrane of the esophagus to herniate through a defect in the wall of esophagus. Zenker diverticuli are usually located...

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Definition of ZIFT

ZIFT: Stands for zygote intrafallopian transfer, a method used to treat infertility in which an egg fertilized in vitro (outside the body) is placed into a woman's fallopian tube.This technique is one used to overcome infertility, the inabi...

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Definition of Zinc

Zinc: A mineral that is essential to the body and is a constituent of many enzymes that permit chemical reactions to proceed at normal rates. Zinc is involved in the manufacture of protein (protein synthesis) and in cell division. Zinc is a...

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Definition of Zinc deficiency

Deficiency, zinc: According to the National Academy of Sciences, the Recommended Dietary Allowance of zinc is 8 milligrams per day for women age 19+ years and 11 milligrams per day for men age 19+ years. Food sources of zinc include meat in...

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Definition of Zinc excess

Zinc excess: Too much zinc can cause gastrointestinal irritation (upset stomach), interfere with copper absorption and cause copper deficiency, and (like too little zinc) cause immune deficiency. According to the National Academy of Science...

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Definition of Zinc finger

Zinc finger: A finger-shaped fold in a protein that permits it to interact with DNA and RNA. The fold is created by the binding of specific amino acids in the protein to a zinc atom. Zinc-finger proteins regulate the expression of genes as...

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Definition of Zinsser disease

Zinsser disease: Also called Brill-Zinsserdisease, recrudescence of epidemic typhus years after the initial attack. The agent that causes epidemic typhus (Rickettsia prowazekii) remains viable for many years and then when host defenses are...

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Definition of ZIP code, protein

ZIP code, protein: An informal name for a molecular cell biology system of signals or "address tags" that guide the movement of a protein within a cell. In more technical terms, protein ZIP codes* are molecular signals that direct the prote...

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Definition of ZNF9

ZNF9: A gene that encodes a protein called zinc finger protein 9. An inherited mutation in ZNF9 causes type 2 myotonic dystrophy. One region of the ZNF9 gene has a particular 4-base-pair sequence, CCTG, that is normally repeated a few times...

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Definition of ZollingerEllison syndrome

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: A rare disorder caused by a tumor called a gastrinoma, most often occurring in the pancreas. The tumor secretes the hormone gastrin, which causes increased production of gastric acid leading to severe recurrent u...

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Definition of Zona

Zona: 1. A synonym for shingles. 2. Any zone or encircling area. 3. Any area with a specific boundary. Zona, Latin for a girdle, is a synonym for shingles because it can appear to girdle part of the body....

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Definition of Zona pellucida

Zona pellucida: The strong membrane that forms around an ovum as it develops in the ovary. The membrane remains in place during the egg's travel through the fallopian tube. To fertilize the egg, a sperm must penetrate the thinning zona pell...

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Definition of Zoonotic

Zoonotic: Pertaining to a zoonosis: a disease that can be transmitted from animals to people or, more specifically, a disease that normally exists in animals but that can infect humans. There are multitudes of zoonotic diseases. Some exampl...

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Definition of Zoonotic disease

Zoonotic disease: Any disease that is spread from animals to people. There are many known zoonotic diseases, some of them very familiar such as Lyme disease and malaria. Less familiar zoonotic diseases (beginning with the letters "a" and "b...

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Definition of Zoonotic transfer

Zoonotic transfer: The transmission of a disease from an animal host to a human. Infections transmitted from their animal host of origin to people may have a very severe impact. Hantavirus is an example. See also: Zoonosis; Zoonotic; Zoonot...

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Definition of Zoophilia

Zoophilia: A sexual disorder involving an erotic attraction to animals or an abnormal desire to have sexual contact with animals.Zoophilia is one form of paraphilia (deviant sexual behavior)....

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Definition of Zoophobia

Zoophobia: An abnormal and persistent fear of animals. A phobia is an unreasonable fear that can cause avoidance and panic. Phobias are a relatively common type of anxiety disorder. Phobias can be treated with cognitive behavioral therapy u...

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Definition of Zygoma

Zygoma: The bone that forms the prominence of the cheek. Also known as zygomatic bone, zygomatic arch, malar bone, and yoke bone....

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Definition of Zygomatic arch

Zygomatic arch: The part of the temporal bone of the skull that forms the prominence of the cheek. The zygomatic arch is also known as the zygomatic bone, the zygoma, the malar bone, the cheek bone and the yoke bone. The word "zygomatic" co...

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Definition of Zygomatic bone

Zygomatic bone: The part of the temporal bone of the skull that forms the prominence of the cheek. The zygomatic bone is also known as the zygomatic arch, the zygoma, the malar bone, the cheek bone and the yoke bone. The word "zygomatic" co...

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Definition of Zygomycosis

Zygomycosis: A potentially fatal, dangerous infection that is caused by various fungi from the class Zygomycetes. Zygomycosis is seen most often in patients who are already ill with diseases that suppress the immune system, such as AIDS, bu...

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Definition of Zygotic lethal gene

Zygotic lethal gene: A gene that is lethal (fatal) for the zygote, the cell formed by the union of a sperm (male sex cell) and an ovum (female sex cell). The zygote would normally develop into an embryo, as instructed by the genetic materia...

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