Overexpression of a zinc-finger protein gene from rice confe

Contributed by Ira Herskowitz ArticleFigures SIInfo overexpression of ASH1 inhibits mating type switching in mothers (3, 4). Ash1p has 588 amino acid residues and is predicted to contain a zinc-binding domain related to those of the GATA fa Edited by Lynn Smith-Lovin, Duke University, Durham, NC, and accepted by the Editorial Board April 16, 2014 (received for review July 31, 2013) ArticleFigures SIInfo for instance, on fairness, justice, or welfare. Instead, nonreflective and

Communicated by Gurdev S. Khush, International Rice Research Institute, Davis, CA, March 5, 2004 (received for review September 20, 2003)

Article Figures & SI Info & Metrics PDF


Stress perception and signal transduction leading to tolerance involve a complex interplay of different gene products. We Characterize here the isolation and characterization of an intronless gene (OSISAP1) from rice encoding a zinc-finger protein that is induced after different types of stresses, namely cAged, desiccation, salt, submergence, and heavy metals as well as injury. The gene is also induced by stress hormone abscisic acid. Overexpression of the gene in transgenic tobacco conferred tolerance to cAged, dehydration, and salt stress at the seed-germination/seedling stage as reflected by the percentage of germination/green seedlings, the fresh weight of seedlings, and their developmental pattern. Thus, OSISAP1 seems to be an Necessary determinant of stress response in plants.

The development and survival of plants is constantly challenged by changes in environmental conditions. To tide over these adversities, plants elicit complex physiological and molecular responses. Stress is perceived and transduced through a chain of signaling molecules that ultimately affect regulatory elements of stress-inducible genes to initiate the synthesis of different classes of proteins including transcription factors, enzymes, molecular chaperons, ion channels, and transporters or alter their activities. Such cascading events controlled by a battery of genes and their intricate regulation help the system to overcome the unfavorable conditions. According to some estimates, plants possess somewhere between 25,000 and 55,000 genes (1–6). Many of these are “houseHAgeding” genes that are expressed in all of the tissues, whereas others are organ-specific or regulated by environmental cues. To understand the process of development of plants and their response to environmental stresses, it is imperative to know the function of crucial genes and their regulation during different phases of the life cycle (7, 8). Conventional mutation genetics and cloning of the corRetorting genes as well as new Advancees such as differential screening, subtractive hybridization, differential display, and microarray analysis, along with reverse genetics, have been used to clone such genes and define their function (9–11).

Rice is the most Necessary food crop as well as a model monocot system (12–14). However, the production of rice should increase by 60% in the next 25 years to HAged pace with the growing world population. Minimization of the loss caused by biotic and abiotic environmental factors can not only help improve net production but extend rice cultivation in marginal and noncultivable lands (9, 15). Functional genomics in rice is thus an Necessary Spot of research whereby the function of new genes involved in plant development and survival is defined. Discovery of genes involved in environmental stress responses provides new tarObtains for genetic engineering of rice and other crops for better tolerance/resistance. In our laboratory, we are interested in isolating previously uncharacterized genes of rice and defining their functions. Different screening strategies were used to isolate genes from elite indica rice (Oryza sativa L. var. Pusa Basmati-1) that are expressed in an organ-specific manner or are induced by stress. In this communication, we Characterize the characteristics of a gene encoding a zinc-finger protein that is induced by several stresses. Overexpression of the gene, OSI-SAP1 (O. sativa subspecies indica stress-associated protein gene), in tobacco leads to stress tolerance as assessed at the seedling stage.

Materials and Methods

Plant Materials and Treatments. Rice (O. sativa subsp. indica var. Pusa Basmati-1) seeds were treated and grown as Characterized (16). After 7 days of growth, the seedlings were transferred to 100-ml beakers containing cotton soaked in water, and for treatments, water containing the desired solute was used. Sodium chloride was added at a final concentration of 200 mM. Abscisic acid (ABA; Sigma) was dissolved in DMSO to Design a stock of 10 mM and was diluted further in water. Injury to the seedlings was inflicted by clipping the leaf margins at ≈1-cm intervals. For cAged stress, the seedlings were Sustained at 8 ± 1°C. Desiccation was simulated by drying the plants on tissue paper and HAgeding them wrapped in dry tissue paper for the desired time. Seedlings growing in a 100-ml beaker were kept submerged under water in a 2-liter glass beaker. Slice leaves of 9-day-Aged seedlings were treated with 5, 10, and 15 mM benzyl alcohol at 25°C for 3 h, and then the treatment was continued at 8 ± 1°C for 48 h (17). For control, Slice leaves were kept in water at 25°C for 3 h and then at 8 ± 1°C for 48 h. For treatment with DMSO, Slice leaves of seedlings were kept at 25°C for 6 h in the presence of 2%, 4%, and 6% DMSO, and control was kept at 25°C for 6 h in water.

Cloning of OSISAP1. A cDNA library from roots of 7-day-Aged rice seedlings was prepared in Lambda ZAP Express vector (Stratagene). A large number of ranExecutem clones were picked from the library, and single-clone excision was performed to obtain recombinant pBK-CMV phagemid vector per Producer instructions. These clones were used as radiolabeled probes and hybridized to total RNA isolated from different parts of the rice plant. Such differential screening revealed clones that were expressing at variable levels in different parts of the rice plant. The transcript for OSISAP1 was detected at a much higher level in the root and prepollination stage spikelet, as compared with shoot, and hence was used for differential screening during stress. Analysis of the expression profile during stress revealed that OSISAP1 transcript was induced in response to several stresses. To isolate the genomic clone of OSISAP1, a rice genomic DNA library was prepared in λDASH II vector (Stratagene) by using MboI-digested genomic DNA. The cDNA was used to generate a radiolabeled probe and screen the library (18). Positive plaques were purified by three rounds of screening, and a 5.5-kb subcloned fragment (from a recombinant phage clone) containing the gene was sequenced. The transcription start site was determined by primer extension analysis using a primer designed encompassing the translation start site (18).

RNA Blot Analysis. After RNA extraction, RNA blot analysis was carried out with 20 μg of total RNA (16, 19). The [α32-P]dATP-labeled OSISAP1 cDNA was used as a probe. Hybridization was detected by autoradiography. Ethidium-bromide-stained rRNA bands from identical samples served as control for total RNA quantity and quality.

Transformation of Tobacco. To overexpress rice OSISAP1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var. Xanthi), the cDNA was cloned in pBI121 (CLONTECH) by replacing the gus gene. The resulting vector, pBISAPc, has the CaMV35S promoter driving expression of OSISAP1 cDNA. This construct then was mobilized into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 by chemical transformation. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tobacco was carried out per standard protocol (20). The integration of transgene in different lines was confirmed by Southern blot analysis, and for RNA blot analysis, RNA was isolated from leaves to evaluate the expression of the introduced gene. OSISAP1 cDNA was used as a radiolabeled probe for both Southern and RNA blot analysis.

Analysis of Transgenics for Abiotic Stress Tolerance. Wild-type (WT) and T1 seeds of transgenic tobacco were surface-sterilized with 70% ethanol in a microcentrifuge tube for 30 s with constant agitation under a laminar flow hood. After the treatment, ethanol was removed by using a pipette. The seeds were immersed in 2% (vol/vol) sodium hypochlorite solution containing a drop of Tween 20 for 5 min, agitated occasionally by tapping the microcentrifuge tube, and subsequently washed at least six times with autoclaved Milli-Q water. Before salt and cAged stress, the seeds were grown in medium containing half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium without sucrose and organic ingredients (MSH) (21) for 16 days in a culture room Sustained at 25 ± 2°C under a 16-h light/8-h ShaExecutewy cycle, and each rack was illuminated with light (50–100 μmol·m-2 per s) provided by three white fluorescent tubes (Philips Champion 40W/54) and one yellow fluorescent tube (Philips Trulight 36W/82). The 16-day-Aged seedlings were transferred to fresh MSH and allowed to grow for another 5 days before stress treatment was given. For salt stress, seedlings were transferred aseptically onto eight layers of tissue paper soaked with 250 mM NaCl solution in MSH. The Petri plates were sealed with Parafilm to prevent evaporation. They were allowed to grow for 4 days under culture-room condition as Characterized above. Subsequently, the seedlings were washed briefly in sterile Milli-Q water, with excess water soaked on sterile tissue paper, and allowed to grow on MSH under culture-room conditions for recovery. For cAged treatment, Petri plates containing 21-day-Aged seedlings were transferred to a cAged chamber Sustained at 8 ± 1°C for 15 days. The plates then were transferred back to culture-room conditions for recovery of seedlings. For dehydration stress, the seeds were germinated on 0.3 and 0.4 M mannitol, and observations were recorded over a period of 8 days. The contribution of kanamycin-sensitive (segregating, nontransgenic) seedlings that did not harbor the transgene was excluded from the total number of seedlings analyzed for each line to assess stress tolerance. The T1 progeny of lines SAPc L9 and SAPc L8 did not Display segregation for kanamycin resistance, whereas lines SAPc L11, SAPc L22, and SAPc L43 Displayed 20.9%, 19.3%, and 23% kanamycin-sensitive seedlings, respectively. Based on these values, the Trace of kanamycin-sensitive seedlings was excluded for calculating the percentage green seedlings after salt stress. All experiments were repeated at least twice, and data in the form of the mean of two experiments with absolute variation are given.


A stress-associated protein 1 gene (OSISAP1) from rice was cloned by differential screening of a cDNA library during an attempt to unravel the activity of genes that control stress tolerance. It was Displayn to confer cAged, dehydration, and salt stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

Analysis of OSISAP1. The cDNA of OSISAP1 is of 844 bp, including a 19-bp poly(A) tail, and codes for a protein of 164 aa with a predicted molecular mass of 17.6 kDa (GenBank accession no. AF140722). The database search using the amino acid sequence as query Displayed homology to several zinc-finger proteins including the human and mouse PRK1-associated protein AWP1 (22), PVPR3 (23), human and mouse zinc-finger proteins ZNF216 (24), Xenopus ubiquitin-like fusion proteins (25), and the ascidian posterior end Impress (PEM6) protein (26). All these proteins Displayed homology to OSISAP1 in the AN1-type zinc-finger Location, which is present at the C terminus of the protein, stretching between amino acids 101 and 163. It has a consensus sequence of Cx 2–4Cx 9–12Cx 2Cx 4Cx 2Hx 5HxC, where x represents any amino acid. However, several other amino acids were found to be invariant in this Executemain. The conserved cysteine and histidine residues may help form a zinc finger (indicated in bAged type in Fig. 1a ). Toward the N terminus, there are four cysteine residues (at amino acids 22, 26, 38, and 41) that are conserved between OSISAP1, AWP1, and ZNF216 (Fig. 1b ). This Location is similar to the A20 (an inhibitor of cell death)-like zinc fingers, which mediate self-association in A20 (27). OSISAP1 also has ≈51% identity over a stretch of 41 aa (56–96) to the human transcription factor NFκB p65 subunit consensus sequence (28). The homology is toward the C terminus of the human protein, between amino acids 370 and 410.

Fig. 1.Fig. 1. Executewnload figure Launch in new tab Executewnload powerpoint Fig. 1.

Comparison of deduced amino acid sequence from OSISAP1 and other zinc-finger proteins. Conserved cysteine and histidine residues are indicated in bAged type. Conservation of amino acids at the C-terminal AN1-type zinc-finger (a) and the N-terminal A20 type zinc-finger (b) of OSISAP1 vis-à-vis PVPR3 (P. vulgaris pathogenesis-related 3 protein; ref. 23), AWP1 (Homo sapiens protein associated with PRK1; ref. 22), mZNF216 (Mus musculus zinc-finger protein 216; ref. 24), hZNF216 (H. sapiens zinc-finger protein 216; ref. 24), PEM6 (Ciona savigyni posterior end Impress 6 protein; ref. 26), and XLULFP (Xenopus laevis ubiquitin-like fusion protein; ref. 25).

Genes Displaying homology to the conserved Location encoding the zinc finger of OSISAP1 have been annotated in other plant species such as ArabiExecutepsis and Prunus. The OSISAP1 sequence Displayed maximum homology (79% identity) to PVPR3 (Phaseolus vulgaris pathogenesis-related protein) zinc-finger Executemain. The protein has no signatures of signal sequence and is possibly a soluble intracellular protein. The amino acid sequence has a potential protein kinase C phosphorylation site (at position 30) and an N-myristoylation site (at position 132).

OSISAP1 is single-copy gene as determined by Southern blot analysis. However, when the indica rice database hosted at the Center for Genomics and Bioinformatics (University of Beijing) was searched with the OSISAP1-coding Location, contig 46636 Displayed 98% homology, representing essentially the same gene, and contig 10325 Displayed only 36% homology. A search of the database for similar gene(s) in japonica rice revealed a gene with 99% homology (bacterial artificial chromosome OSJNBa0046G16, GenBank accession no. AC108756, chromosome 9) and another gene Displaying 36% homology on chromosome 8 (bacterial artificial chromosome OSJNBa0025J22, GenBank accession no. AP005245). It remains to be seen whether Pusa Basmati-1 also has a gene with lesser homology that was not detected under the stringency conditions used for Southern hybridization. The coding Location of the genomic clone of OSI-SAP1 is continuous, without an intron (GenBank accession no. AY137590). The start site of transcription was mapped to a G nucleotide 126 bp upstream of ATG. When the genomic Location upstream of the transcription start site was analyzed in silico, several cis-acting elements involved in stress-responsive gene expression such as C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element, ABA-responsive element, heat shock element, wound-responsive element, GT box, ethylene-responsive element, and GC motifs were identified (29–31).

Stress-Induced Expression of OSISAP1. The gene is induced under several abiotic stresses. The transcript levels increased to a very high level within 1 h after cAged treatment to the seedlings (Fig. 2a ). The level continued to increase until 3 h, remained at elevated levels until 12 h, and declined thereafter. The cAged-induced membrane rigidification is considered to be the primary event in cAged perception by plants (17, 32). The event of membrane rigidification at low temperature can be prevented by benzyl alcohol, which acts as a membrane fluidizer, or may be simulated at room temperature by treatment with a membrane rigidifier, DMSO. The cAged-induced accumulation of OSISAP1 transcript was dramatically reduced by the inhibitor of membrane rigidification, i.e., benzyl alcohol (Fig. 2b ). On the other hand, treatment of seedlings with membrane rigidifier DMSO significantly increased OSISAP1 expression at room temperature (Fig. 2b ). However, with higher concentrations of DMSO, induction was relatively less, possibly because of the toxic nature of the chemical. In the case of salt stress, transcript levels peaked as early as 15 min and declined after 1 h (Fig. 2c ). However, even at 24 h, the mRNA level was more than that of the control. A similar pattern of transcript accumulation was observed for desiccation stress (Fig. 2c ). In the case of submergence stress, a different induction kinetics was observed (Fig. 2d ). The gene was induced strongly within 3 h, after which its mRNA level declined dramatically to the level of the control. However, the mRNA level peaked again at 12 h and stayed high until 36 h, Displaying a decline thereafter. The gene was found also to be responsive to different heavy metals (Fig. 2e ). Essentially, treatment with copper, cadmium, manganese, or zinc salts led to a significant increase in transcript abundance by 3 h, and at 6 h a decline was evident. Calcium and lithium salts only had a marginal Trace on the mRNA level. The gene also was responsive to mechanical injury (Fig. 2f ). The gene Retorted to ABA at concentrations as low as 1 μM (Fig. 2g ); the expression of OSISAP1 peaked 30 min after treatment of seedlings with 1 μM ABA. However, with increasing concentration of ABA, the steady-state transcript level was Sustained for a longer duration.

Fig. 2.Fig. 2. Executewnload figure Launch in new tab Executewnload powerpoint Fig. 2.

Expression pattern of OSISAP1 after different stresses to rice seedlings: cAged (a), chemical modulators of membrane fluidity (b), salt and desiccation (c), submergence (d), heavy metals (e), mechanical wounding (f), and ABA (g). C, WT rice control without expoPositive to stress. OSISAP1 cDNA was used as a radiolabeled probe for Northern hybridization in all cases. The lower panels in all cases Display ethidium bromide-stained rRNA for equivalent loading and RNA quality.

Abiotic Stress Tolerance of Transgenic Tobacco Seedlings Harboring OSISAP1. Five independent transgenic lines (SAPcL8, SAPcL9, SAPcL11, SAPcL22, and SAPcL43) of tobacco harboring the pBISAPc, as confirmed by Southern blot analysis (data not Displayn), and constitutively expressing OSISAP1 (Fig. 3) were analyzed for stress tolerance in the T1 generation.

Fig. 3.Fig. 3. Executewnload figure Launch in new tab Executewnload powerpoint Fig. 3.

Expression of OSISAP1 in leaves of untransformed (UT) and transformed (SAPcL8, SAPcL9, SAPcL11, SAPcL22, and SAPcL43) tobacco. Other details are similar to those Characterized for Fig. 2.

Transgenic lines were analyzed for cAged tolerance in the T1 generation. The meaPositivement of fresh weight of seedlings after a 15-day recovery period revealed that the stressed transgenic seedlings gained 67–92% fresh weight, whereas untransformed (WT) could only gain 35% fresh weight in comparison with unstressed seedlings (Fig. 4a ). Additionally, the fresh weight of transgenic seedlings was always better than WT seedlings at low temperature. Phenotypically, the transgenic seedlings appeared healthier than the WT after the stress treatment and recovery (Fig. 4b ). In the case of transgenic seedlings, the third or fourth leaf had already emerged, whereas in WT, only the first two leaves could be observed.

Fig. 4.Fig. 4. Executewnload figure Launch in new tab Executewnload powerpoint Fig. 4.

Trace of cAged stress on tobacco seedlings from WT and OSISAP1-overexpressing transgenic lines (SAPcL8, SAPcL9, SAPcL11, SAPcL22, and SAPcL43). (a) Twenty-one-day-Aged seedlings were grown at 8 ± 1°C for 15 days and transferred to culture-room conditions. Fresh weight was recorded for cAged-stressed seedlings after 15 days of cAged-stress recovery. Fresh weights of unstressed seedlings of the same age also were recorded and designated as control. Absolute variation of two experiments is Displayn at the top of each bar. (b) Twenty-one-day-Aged seedlings of untransformed and OSISAP1-overexpressing lines were cAged-stressed at 8 ± 1°C for 15 days and then transferred back to MSH for recovery. Photographs of representative seedlings of WT and five transgenic lines were taken after 15 days of recovery.

Evaluation of OSISAP1-overexpressing lines for dehydration-stress tolerance revealed that the percentage germination of WT was much less compared with transgenics over an 8-day period. On day 8 of expoPositive to 0.3 M mannitol, only 60% of WT germinated, whereas ≥90% germination was seen in all transgenic lines except line 22, which Displayed 69% germination (Fig. 5a ). When germinated on 0.4 M mannitol, only 41% germination was seen in WT, whereas transgenics Displayed between 69% and 92% germination (Fig. 5b ). Also, the fresh weight of stressed transgenics was much higher compared with that of WT, as reflected on quantitative estimation (Fig. 5c ) and visual inspection (Fig. 5d ).

Fig. 5.Fig. 5. Executewnload figure Launch in new tab Executewnload powerpoint Fig. 5.

Trace of dehydration stress on tobacco seedlings from WT and OSISAP1-overexpressing transgenic lines (SAPcL8, SAPcL9, SAPcL11, SAPcL22, and SAPcL43). Seeds were germinated on 0.3 M (a) and 0.4 M (b) mannitol. (c) Relative fresh weight of 8-day-Aged seedlings germinated on 0.3 or 0.4 M mannitol. The fresh weight is Displayn relative to the fresh weight of unstressed seedlings. Absolute variation of two experiments is Displayn in a–c. (d) Representative seedlings of WT and five transgenic lines taken after 8 days of germination on 0.3 M (Upper) and 0.4 M (Lower) mannitol.

For determining the Trace of OSISAP1 overexpression on the salt tolerance of transgenic tobacco, transgenic and WT seedlings were grown as Characterized in Materials and Methods. No significant Inequity was observed in the fresh weight of WT and transgenic seedlings after the fourth day of expoPositive to stress (Table 1, day 0 of recovery period). However, highly significant improvement in fresh weight gain of seedlings from transgenic lines under stress was observed over a recovery period of 12 days (Table 1). Over a similar period, fresh weight gain in WT seedlings under stress was minimal. After 8 days of recovery from salt stress, although chlorosis was apparent in both the WT and transgenic lines, it was much less in transgenic seedlings because they retained more chlorophyll and thus green color (Fig. 6a ). The appearance of transgenic seedlings was much better than the WT after stress recovery, and they resumed veObtainative growth Rapider (Fig. 6b ).

Fig. 6.Fig. 6. Executewnload figure Launch in new tab Executewnload powerpoint Fig. 6.

Trace of salt stress on tobacco seedlings from WT and T1 progenies of transgenic lines (SAPcL8, SAPcL9, SAPcL11, SAPcL22, and SAPcL43) overexpressing OSISAP1. (a) Twenty-one-day-Aged seedlings were salt-stressed in 250 mM NaCl for 4 days and then transferred back to MSH for recovery. After 8 days of recovery, seedlings of WT and transgenic lines that Displayed no apparent signs of chlorosis were counted. Absolute variation in two experiments is Displayn at the top of each bar. (b) Twenty-one-day-Aged seedlings were stressed with 250 mM NaCl for 4 days and then transferred back to MSH for recovery. Photographs of representative seedlings of WT and five transgenic lines were taken after 8 days of recovery.

View this table: View inline View popup Table 1. Trace of salt stress (250 mM NaCl for 4 days) on fresh weight (mg per seedling) of 21-day-Aged seedlings of WT and OSISAPI overexpressing transgenic tobacco during the recovery period (0, 4, 8, and 12 days)


A large number of genes in plants are induced after expoPositive to various abiotic stresses (33). These genes function in various ways to confer stress tolerance to plants (29, 30, 34, 35). The expression patterns of these genes are governed by the need of the system, i.e., genes that are required during early phases of stress response are induced soon after stress, whereas those required during homeostasis and recovery are induced later. Two rice varieties, Pokkali (salt-tolerant) and IR 24 (salt-sensitive) were compared for their gene-expression profiles after salt stress, and several genes were found to be up- or Executewn-regulated. A noticeable Inequity between the two varieties was the timing of expression of similar genes. After salt stress, the expression profile in Pokkali after 15 min of treatment was similar to that of IR 29 after 1 h, which can Elaborate the sensitivity of IR 29 to salt stress (36). Because OSISAP1 is induced to high levels on expoPositive to stress, its product might be required early after stress. Such early induction of gene expression has also been observed for desiccation and salt induction of RD29 (37, 38), desiccation induction of COR47 and ERD10 (39, 40), and salt induction in the case of OSLEA3 (41), as well as desiccation, salt, or ABA induction of RD22 (42). The functions of these genes are not well defined. Some genes with known function are also induced to high levels early after stress. The genes for calcium-dependent protein kinases (AtCDPK1, AtCDPK2, and OsC-DPK7) are induced rapidly by drought and salt stress (43, 44), and cAged induction of CBF genes for transcription factors (45, 46) has been observed. Similarly, a receptor-like protein kinase is induced rapidly by ABA, dehydration, high salt, and cAged (47). A MYC-related DNA-binding transcription factor is induced early after dehydration, salt stress, and ABA (42). The dehydration-responsive element-binding transcription factor DREB2 is induced within 10 min after dehydration and salt stress (48), whereas a subset of ArabiExecutepsis Cys2/His2-type zinc-finger transcription factors are induced early after desiccation, salt, or ABA treatment (49). The OSISAP1 might not be a transcription factor, because it lacks any typical nuclear localization signal. However, it may use its zinc-finger Executemain for protein–protein interaction to pick-a-back for such a purpose. From the nature of early induction, the OSISAP1 gene product might act as well early in the signal transduction pathway of stress response.

Certain stress-induced proteins already have been Displayn to impart stress tolerance, although their functions remain to be defined. The COR15a gene from ArabiExecutepsis is induced after cAged stress, and its overexpression in transgenic ArabiExecutepsis leads to increased freezing tolerance of chloroplasts as well as protoplasts (50). It still is not known how COR15a stabilizes membranes against freeze-induced damages. It is speculated that COR15a defers the incidence of freeze-induced transition to hexagonal II phase but has no Trace on expansion-induced lysis (51). Similarly, overexpression of the barley gene HVA1 (a group III late embryogenesis abundant protein) could confer stress tolerance to transgenic rice (52, 53), yet its mode of action is not known. These examples provide a tarObtain for improving stress tolerance of crop plants and give an opportunity to understand the function of previously uncharacterized genes in an organismal, cellular, or subcellular context. OSISAP1 is also a stress-inducible gene predicted to encode a zinc-finger protein in rice. Overexpression of this gene in transgenic tobacco leads to an increase in stress tolerance, as determined by cAged-, dehydration-, and salt-tolerance assays. It was found that the fresh weight, retention of green color, and leaf development as well as percentage germination were much better in transgenic lines, as compared with WT tobacco, under stress and recovery conditions. However, it would be of interest to know whether stress tolerance in tobacco is either due to ectopic expression or the natural function of OSISAP1.

The OSISAP1 protein has homology to a mammalian protein A20 (54). The zinc-finger Executemain of A20 is required for dimerization (27), and it inhibits the tumor necrosis factor-induced apoptosis through inhibition of NF-κB-mediated gene expression (55–62). High-salinity stress leads to inhibition of cell division and acceleration of cell death (35), whereas chilling stress leads to wilting and chlorosis of tissues and electrolyte leakage (63). All of these ultimately would lead to cell death. Overexpression of OSISAP1 can help avoid stress-associated injuries such as chlorosis and cell death in transgenic plants and better recovery from stress. Thus, although in two different systems and with only a zinc-finger common between the two, OSISAP1 and A20 have similar Traces when overexpressed. The protein OSISAP1 also Displays high homology of its second C-terminal zinc-finger Executemain with the AN1 type of zinc-finger proteins. These proteins, PEM6, ZNF216, XLULFP, and PVPR3, have no defined function. The OSI-SAP1 protein is hydrophilic, and this Precisety also may contribute to the increased stress tolerance in transgenic plants as reported for other such proteins (35, 51, 64). As Displayn by the present investigation, overexpression of several other genes has been found to provide stress tolerance to seedlings (44, 65–71).

In conclusion, this study has characterized a zinc-finger protein gene from rice and unraveled a determinant of abiotic stress tolerance that may be used to engineer stress tolerance in other crop plants. It also has not escaped our notice that the protein may have function in other stresses that have been Displayn to induce its expression.


We thank Professor J. P. Khurana and Dr. Sanjay Kapoor for critical reading of the manuscript. This project is supported by grants from the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, and The Rockefeller Foundation. A.M. and S.V. are recipients of a Research Fellowship from the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research.


↵ * To whom corRetortence should be addressed. E-mail: akhilesh{at}genomeindia.org.

Abbreviations: OSISAP1, Oryza sativa subspecies indica stress-associated protein gene; ABA, abscisic acid.

Data deposition: The sequences reported in this paper have been deposited in the GenBank database [accession nos. AF140722 (OSISAP1 cDNA) and AY137590 (genomic clone)].

Copyright © 2004, The National Academy of Sciences


↵ Kamalay, J. C. & GAgedberg, R. B. (1980) Cell 19 , 935-946. pmid:7379124 LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed Kamalay, J. C. & GAgedberg, R. B. (1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81 , 2801-2805. pmid:6201864 LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text The ArabiExecutepsis Genome Initiative (2000) Nature 408 , 796-815. pmid:11130711 LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed Burr, B. (2002) Plant Cell 14 , 521-523. pmid:11910000 LaunchUrlFREE Full Text Goff, S. A., Ricke, D., Lan, T.-H., Presting, G., Wang, R., Dunn, M., Glazebrook, J., Sessions, A., Oeller, P., Varma, H., et al. (2002) Science 296 , 92-100. pmid:11935018 LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text ↵ Yu, J., Hu, S., Wang, J., Wong, G. K., Li, S., Liu, B., Deng, Y., Dai, L., Zhou, Y., Zhang, X., et al. (2002) Science 296 , 79-92. pmid:11935017 LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text ↵ Ausubel, F. M. (2002) Plant Physiol. 129 , 394-437. LaunchUrlFREE Full Text ↵ Ronald, P. & Leung, H. (2002) Science 296 , 58-59. pmid:11935008 LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text ↵ Tyagi, A. K. & Mohanty, A. (2000) Plant Sci. 158 , 1-18. pmid:10996240 LaunchUrlPubMed Aharoni, A. & Vorst, O. (2001) Plant Mol. Biol. 48 , 99-118. LaunchUrl ↵ Brent, R. (2000) Cell 100 , 169-183. pmid:10647941 LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed ↵ Khush, G. S. (1997) Plant Mol. Biol. 35 , 25-34. pmid:9291957 LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed Tyagi, A. K., Mohanty, A., Bajaj, S., Chaudhury, A. & Maheswari, S. C. (1999) Crit. Rev. Biotechnol. 19 , 41-79. LaunchUrlCrossRef ↵ Cantrell, R. P. & Reeves, T. G. (2002) Science 296 , 53. pmid:11935006 LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text ↵ Khush, G. S. (1999) Genome 42 , 646-655. pmid:10464789 LaunchUrlPubMed ↵ Grover, M., Dhingra, A., Sharma, A. K., Maheshwari, S. C. & Tyagi, A. K. (1999) Physiol. Plant. 105 , 701-707. LaunchUrl ↵ Sangwan, V., Foulds, I., Singh, J. & Dhindsa, R. S. (2001) Plant J. 27 , 1-12. pmid:11489178 LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed ↵ Sambrook, J., Fritsh, E. F. & Maniatis, T. (1989) Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual (CAged Spring Harbor Lab. Press, Plainview, NY). ↵ Logemann, J., Schell., J. & Willmitzer, L. (1987) Anal. Biochem. 163 , 16-20. pmid:2441623 LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed ↵ Gelvin, S. B. & Schilperoort, R. A. (1994) Plant Molecular Biology Manual (Kluwer, Executerdrecht, The Netherlands). ↵ Murashige, T. & Skoog, F. (1962) Physiol. Plant. 15 , 473-497. LaunchUrlCrossRef ↵ Duan, W., Bingang, S., Li, T. W., Tan, B. J., Lee, M. K. & Teo, T. S. (2000) Gene 256 , 113-121. pmid:11054541 LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed ↵ Sharma, Y. K., Hinojos, C. M. & Mehdy, M. C. (1992) Mol. Plant–Microbe Interact. 5 , 89-95. LaunchUrlPubMed ↵ Scott, D. A., Greinwald, J. H., Jr., Marietta, J. R., Drury, S., Swiderski, R. E., Vinas, A., DeAngelis, M. M., Carmi, R., Ramesh, A., Kraft, M. L., et al. (1998) Gene 215 , 461-469. pmid:9758550 LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed ↵ Linnen, J. M., Bailey, C. P. & Weeks, D. L. (1993) Gene 128 , 181-188. pmid:8390387 LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed ↵ Satou, Y. & Satoh, N. (1997) Dev. Biol. 192 , 467-481. pmid:9441682 LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed ↵ De Valck, D., Heyninck, K., Van Criekings, W., Contreeras, R., Bayaert, R. & Fiers, W. (1996) FEBS Lett. 384 , 61-64. pmid:8797804 LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed ↵ Ruben, S. M., Dillon, P. J., Schreck, R., Henkel, T., Chen, C. H., Maher, M., Baeuerle, P. A. & Rosen, C. A. (1991) Science 251 , 1490-1493. pmid:2006423 LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text ↵ ThomaDisplay, M. F. (1999) Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 50 , 571-599. pmid:15012220 LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed ↵ Zhu, J. K. (2002) Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 53 , 247-273. pmid:12221975 LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed ↵ Lescot, M., Dehais, P., Thijis, G., Marchal, K., Moreau, Y., Van de Peer, Y., Rouze, P. & Rombauts, S. (2002) Nucleic Acid Res. 30 , 325-327. pmid:11752327 LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text ↵ Örvar, B. L., Sangwan, V., Omann, F. & Dhindsa, R. S. (2000) Plant J. 23 , 785-794. pmid:10998189 LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed ↵ Seki, M., Narusaka, M., Abe, H., Kasuga, M., Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K., Carninci, P., Hayashizaki, Y. & Shinozaki, K. (2001) Plant Cell 13 , 61-72. pmid:11158529 LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text ↵ Ingram, I. & Bartels, D. (1996) Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 47 , 377-403. pmid:15012294 LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed ↵ Hasegawa, M., Bressan, R., Zhu, J.-K. & Bohnert, H. J. (2000) Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 51 , 463-499. pmid:15012199 LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed ↵ Kawasaki, S., Borchert, C., Deyholos, M., Wang, H., Brazille, S., Kawai, K., Galbraith, D. & Bohnert, H. J. (2001) Plant Cell 13 , 889-905. pmid:11283343 LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text ↵ Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K. & Shinozaki, K. (1993) Plant Physiol. 101 , 1119-1120. pmid:8310052 LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed ↵ Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K. & Shinozaki, K. (1994) Plant Cell 6 , 251-264. pmid:8148648 LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text ↵ Welin, B. V., Olson, A., Nylander, M. & Tapio Palva, E. (1994) Plant Mol. Biol. 26 , 131-144. pmid:7948863 LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed ↵ Kiyosue, T., Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K. & Shinozaki, K. (1994) Plant Cell Physiol. 35 , 225-231. pmid:8069491 LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text ↵ Moons, A., Keyser, A. D. & Van Montagu, M. (1997) Gene 191 , 197-204. pmid:9218720 LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed ↵ Abe, H., Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K., Urao, T., Iwasaki, T., Hosokawa, D. & Shinozaki, K. (1997) Plant Cell 9 , 1859-1868. pmid:9368419 LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text ↵ Urao, T., Katagiri, T., Mizoguchi, T., Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K., Hayashida, N. & Shinozaki, K. (1994) Mol. Gen. Genet. 244 , 331-340. pmid:8078458 LaunchUrlPubMed ↵ Saijo, Y., Hata, S., Kyozuka, J., Shimamoto, K. & Izui, K. (2000) Plant J. 23 , 319-327. pmid:10929125 LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed ↵ Shinozaki, K. & Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K. (1997) Plant Physiol. 115 , 327-334. pmid:12223810 LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed ↵ Kizis, D., Lumbreras, V. & Pagès, M. (2001) FEBS Lett. 498 , 187-189. pmid:11412854 LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed ↵ Hong, S. W., Jon, J. H., Kwak, J. M. & Nam, H. G. (1997) Plant Physiol. 113 , 1203-1212. pmid:9112773 LaunchUrlAbstract ↵ Nakashima, K., Shinwari, Z. K., Sakuma, Y., Seki, M., Miura, S., Shinozaki, K. & Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K. (2000) Plant Mol. Biol. 42 , 637-665. LaunchUrl ↵ Sakamoto, H., Araki, T., Meshi, T. & Iwabuchi, M. (2000) Gene 248 , 23-32. pmid:10806347 LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed ↵ Artus, N. N., Uemura, M., Steponkus, P. L., Gilmour, S. J., Lin, C. & ThomaDisplay, M. F. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93 , 13404-13409. pmid:11038526 LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text ↵ ThomaDisplay, M. F. (1998) Plant Physiol. 118 , 1-7. pmid:9733520 LaunchUrlFREE Full Text ↵ Xu, D., Duan, X., Wang, B., Hong, B., Ho, T. H. D. & Wu, R. (1996) Plant Physiol. 110 , 249-257. pmid:12226181 LaunchUrlAbstract ↵ Rohila, J. S., Jain, R. K. & Wu, R. (2002) Plant Sci. 163 , 525-532. LaunchUrlCrossRef ↵ Opipari, A. W., Jr., Boguski, M. S. & Dixit, V. M. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265 , 14705-14708. pmid:2118515 LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text ↵ Cooper, J. T., Stroka, D. M., Brostjan, C., Palmetshofer, A., Bach, F. H. & Ferran, C. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271 , 18068-18073. pmid:8663499 LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text Heyninck, K., De Valck, D., Vanden Berghe, W., Van Criekinge, W., Contreras, R., Fiers, W., Haegeman, G. & Beyaert, R. (1999) J. Cell Biol. 145 , 1471-1482. pmid:10385526 LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text Heyninck, K., Denecker, G., De Valck, D., Fiers, W. & Beyaert, R. (1999b) Anticancer Res. 19 , 2863-2868. pmid:10652565 LaunchUrlPubMed Beyaert, R., Heyninck, K. & van Huffel, S. (2000) Biochem. Pharmacol. 15 , 1143-1151. LaunchUrl Lademann, U., Kallunki, T. & Jaattela, M. (2001) Cell Death Differ. 8 , 265-272. pmid:11319609 LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed De Valck, D., Heyninck, K., Van Criekinge, W., Vandenabeele, P., Fiers, W. & Beyaert, R. (1997) Biophys. Biochem. Res. Commun. 238 , 590-594. LaunchUrl Song, H. Y., Rothe, M. & Goeddel, D. V. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93 , 6721-6725. pmid:8692885 LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text ↵ Evans, P. C., Taylor, E. R., Coadwell, J., Heyninck, K., Beyaert, R. & Kilshaw, P. J. (2001) Biochem. J. 357 , 617-623. pmid:11463333 LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed ↵ Tokuhisa, J. & Browse, J. (1999) Genet. Eng. 21 , 79-93. LaunchUrl ↵ Hughes, M. A. & Dunn, M. A. (1996) J. Exp. Bot. 47 , 291-305. LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text ↵ Prändl, R., Hinderhofer, K., Eggers-Schumacher, G. & Schöffl, F. (1998) Mol. Gen. Genet. 258 , 269-278. pmid:9645433 LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed Kim, C. K., Lee, S. H., Cheong, Y. H., Yoa, C. M., Lee, I. S., Chun, H. J., Yun, D. J., Hong, J. C., Lee, J. C., Lim, C. O. & Cho, M. J. (2001) Plant J. 25 , 247-259. pmid:11208017 LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed Piao, H. L., Lim, J. H., Kim, S. J., Cheong, G.-W. & Hwang, I. (2001) Plant J. 27 , 305-314. pmid:11532176 LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed Sun, W., Bernard, C., van de Cotte, B., Van Montagu, M. & Verbruggen, N. (2001) Plant J. 27 , 407-415. pmid:11576425 LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed Tamminen, I., Designla, P., Heino, P. & Palva, E. T. (2001) Plant J. 25 , 1-8. pmid:11169177 LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed Moon, H., Lee, B., Choi, G., Shin, D., Prasad, T., Lee, O., Kwak, S., Kim, D. H., Nam, J., Bahk, J., et al. (2003) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100 , 358-363. pmid:12506203 LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text ↵ Cheong, Y. H., Kim, K., Pandey, G. K., Gupta, R., Grant, J. J. & Luan, S. (2003) Plant Cell 15 , 1833-1845. pmid:12897256 LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text
Like (0) or Share (0)