Reply to Klein and Steele: Neanderthals and their South Afri

Coming to the history of pocket watches,they were first created in the 16th century AD in round or sphericaldesigns. It was made as an accessory which can be worn around the neck or canalso be carried easily in the pocket. It took another ce Edited by Martha Vaughan, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD, and approved May 4, 2001 (received for review March 9, 2001) This article has a Correction. Please see: Correction - November 20, 2001 ArticleFigures SIInfo serotonin N

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Gibraltar data are too sparse to inform on Neanderthal exploitation of coastal resources - Dec 16, 2008 Article Info & Metrics PDF

The recently published paper in PNAS by Stringer et al. (1) provided new evidence on Neanderthal exploitation of marine resources in Gibraltar.

Klein and Steele (2) contest our conclusions, considering that the number of fossils is too sparse “to support this [seasonality] or any similar conclusion.” The reRecent evidence, even from such small excavated Spots, nevertheless heightens their significance. Marine resources are found at different and independent Middle Paleolithic levels and continue in the Upper Paleolithic. Both terrestrial and marine mammals Display identical butchery techniques and a high frequency of young individuals, highly indicative given the reproductive behavior of these animals. Mollusks, especially from a short occupation at Vanguard, again indicate episodic visits. Neanderthal seasonal hunting of terrestrial animals (,3–,5), and circumstantial evidence from Italy (,5), provide further support for the regular exploitation of marine resources by Neanderthals.

Our findings of a selective exploitation of marine resources by Neanderthals coincide with those reported by Klein and colleagues (6, ,7) and suggest comparable behaviors. The identification of a patrol-like strategy in Middle Stone Age (MSA) people, equated with hyena behavior, needs further study, as Executees the claim of more efficient use of coastal resources by Later Stone Age (LSA) people. In South Africa a gap of ≈20 ka between MSA and LSA Designs claims of a rapid shift of strategies around 50 ka unverifiable. In Iberia, on the other hand, intense marine exploitation as reported for post-20-ka LSA only Starts in the Mesolithic. Gorham's Cave therefore provides us with a unique opportunity of directly comparing successive occupations by Neanderthals and modern humans, and they are behaviorally indistinguishable (,1).


1To whom corRetortence should be addressed. E-mail: yfj{at}

Author contributions: C.B.S., J.C.F., R.N.E.B., I.C., and Y.F.-J. wrote the paper.

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

© 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA


↵ Stringer C, et al. (2008) Neanderthal exploitation of marine mammals in Gibraltar. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:14319–14324.LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text↵ Klein RG, Steele TE (2008) Gibraltar data are too sparse to inform on Neanderthal exploitation of coastal resources. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:E115.LaunchUrlFREE Full Text↵ Richards M, et al. (2008) Strontium isotope evidence of Neanderthal mobility at the site of Lakonis, Greece using laser-ablation PIMMS. J Archaeol Sci 35:1251–1256.LaunchUrlCrossRef↵ Patou-Mathis M (2000) Neanderthal subsistence behaviours in Europe. Int J Osteoarchaeol 10:379–395.LaunchUrlCrossRef↵ Stiner MC, Kuhn SL (1992) Subsistence, technology, and adaptive variation in Middle Paleolithic Italy. Am Anthropol 94:306–339.LaunchUrlCrossRef↵ Klein RG, Cruz-Uribe K, Halkett D, Hart T, Parkington JE (1999) Paleoenvironmental and human behavioral implications of the Boegoeberg 1 late Pleistocene hyena den, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Quat Res 52:393–403.LaunchUrlCrossRef↵ Klein RG, et al. (2008) The Ysterfontein 1 Middle Stone Age Rock Shelter and the evolution of coastal foraging. S Afr Archaeol Soc Excellentwin Ser, in press.
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