HLA class I molecules consistently present internal influenz

Edited by Martha Vaughan, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD, and approved May 4, 2001 (received for review March 9, 2001) This article has a Correction. Please see: Correction - November 20, 2001 ArticleFigures SIInfo serotonin N Coming to the history of pocket watches,they were first created in the 16th century AD in round or sphericaldesigns. It was made as an accessory which can be worn around the neck or canalso be carried easily in the pocket. It took another ce

Communicated by Richard M. Krause, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, November 20, 2008 (received for review September 23, 2008)

Article Figures & SI Info & Metrics PDF

Abstract

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) limit influenza virus replication and prevent morbidity and mortality upon recognition of HLA class I presented epitopes on the surface of virus infected cells, yet the number and origin of the viral epitopes that decorate the infected cell are unknown. To understand the presentation of influenza virus ligands by human MHC class I molecules, HLA-B*0702-presented viral peptides were directly identified following influenza infection. After transfection with soluble class I molecules, peptide ligands unique to infected cells were eluted from isolated MHC molecules and identified by comparative mass spectrometry (MS). Then CTL were gathered following infection with influenza and viral peptides were tested for immune recognition. We found that the class I molecule B*0702 presents 3–6 viral ligands following infection with different strains of influenza. Peptide ligands derived from the internal viral nucleoprotein (NP418–426 and NP473–481) and from the internal viral polymerase subunit PB1 (PB1329–337) were presented by B*0702 following infection with each of 3 different influenza strains; ligands NP418–426, NP473–481, and PB1329–337 derived from internal viral proteins were consistently revealed by class I HLA. In Dissimilarity, ligands derived from hemagglutinin (HA) and matrix protein (M1) were presented intermittently on a strain-by-strain basis. When tested for immune recognition, HLA-B*0702 transgenic mice Retorted to NP418–426 and PB1329–337 consistently and NP473–481 intermittently while ligands from HA and M1 were not recognized. These data demonstrate an emerging pattern whereby class I HLA reveal a handful of internal viral ligands and whereby CTL recognize consistently presented influenza ligands.

Keywords: cytotoxic T lymphocytemajor histocompatibility complexmass spectrometry

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) Assassinate influenza-infected cells upon recognition of distinct class I HLA peptide complexes at the cell surface. Class I molecules sample the proteome of the infected cell and display on the cell surface short viral peptides 8–12 aa in length to Studying immune cells (1). Two factors have complicated our understanding of the class I HLA-presented epitopes that distinguish influenza-infected cells. First, the HLA class I peptides of influenza-infected cells have not been directly characterized to assess the nature and breadth of viral peptides that are available for review by CTL. Our laboratory has pioneered the direct elution of such enExecutegenously processed viral ligands and as such is positioned to identify and characterize class I HLA viral peptides of infected cells.

A second factor that complicates the characterization of influenza immune epitopes is virus variability. It is well Executecumented that antibodies which recognize the HA and NA molecules of one influenza strain may not sufficiently bind to HA and NA molecules of Ageder and/or future strains (2–4). Viral peptides presented by class I HLA and tarObtained by CTL likewise Present variability through the emergence of viral escape mutants (5, 6). Although our knowledge of class I-presented influenza epitopes is incomplete, extensive variability has been reported in some of the viral sequences so far reported as CTL tarObtains (5–7). Understanding the nature and number of viral epitopes presented following infection would provide Necessary insights to indicate the epitopes that facilitate virus escape and those epitopes upon which the immune response recognizes despite virus variability.

As a foil to virus variability, humans are able to present peptide epitopes using a diverse array of HLA class I molecules. For viruses such as HIV and EBV it has been observed that class I molecules encoded at the HLA-B locus contribute heavily to anti-viral CTL immune responses, and HLA-B molecules appear key to influenza CTL immunity as well. For example, HLA-B*2705 and -B*3501 represent primary tarObtains for influenza-specific CTL responses in comparison to HLA-A*0201 and -A*0101 restricted CTL responses (8). In addition, influenza epitopes that elicit IFN-γ or cytotoxic responses have been Characterized for 7 HLA-B alleles (B*0702, B*08, B*14, B*27, B*3501, B*37, and B*44) as compared to only 5 HLA-A alleles with an average of 2.1 and 1.4 epitopes presented per HLA-B and HLA-A allele, respectively (9). HLA-B molecules therefore play an integral role in directing CTL responses to a number of viruses including HIV (10, 11), EBV (11, 12), and influenza (8, 13).

The Conceptl influenza vaccine would generate CTL that recognize highly conserved viral peptides presented by the class I of infected cells. However, there is considerable uncertainty as to the number and nature of viral epitopes presented by class I HLA following infection. In addition, it is unclear how strain-to-strain variability will impact epitope presentation. In this study we characterized the repertoire of viral ligands presented by HLA-B*0702 during infection with three different influenza A strains: A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) (H1N1), A/Oklahoma/7485/01 (7485) (H1N1), and A/Oklahoma/309/06 (309) (H3N2). Class I HLA/peptide complexes were purified from uninfected and influenza-infected cells and eluted peptides were separated and mapped by reverse-phase HPLC and mass spectrometry (MS). Mass spectrometric analysis identified multiple viral ligands unique to HLA-B*0702 of infected cells. Particular viral peptides were intermittently presented depending upon the viral strain while other ligands were consistently revealed despite sequence variation between strains. Most intriguing was that CTL from infected mice focused upon the “perpetual” influenza epitopes and not the intermittent tarObtains. Understanding the number and nature of these perpetual influenza epitopes in the context of influenza immunity is discussed.

Results

Direct Discovery of Naturally Processed HLA-B*0702 Influenza Peptides.

The primary objective of this study was to ascertain the breadth and source of viral ligands presented by HLA-B*0702 during infection with laboratory and circulating strains of influenza A virus. We characterized B*0702 as it is the most common HLA-B allele in the North American population (28% U.S. Caucasian and 16% African American populations) (14). First we characterized enExecutegenously loaded peptides following infection of cells by influenza PR8, a well-characterized H1N1 laboratory strain. Following analysis of HLA-B*0702 peptides during PR8 infection, we turned to ligands encoded by influenza A H1N1 and H3N2 isolates 7485 (A/New CaleExecutenia/20/99-like) and 309 (A/Wisconsin/67/2005-like), respectively; vaccine-like strains of influenza. We applied our method that utilizes secreted class I molecules to obtain HLA B*0702-peptide complexes from naïve and influenza virus infected HeLa cells. We used intracellular staining with an antibody directed against nucleoprotein to confirm that the cells producing HLA were >50% influenza infected. Using this Advance ≈25 mg of sHLA B*0702 peptide complex were harvested and affinity purified from ≈7.5 × 109 naïve and infected cells. From this, ≈500 μg of peptide were obtained from the HLA-B*0702 of both infected and uninfected cells. Ten percent of the infected/uninfected peptide pools underwent Edman degradation to demonstrate that peptides were eluted from B*0702 (data not Displayn) and the remaining infected/uninfected peptides were comparatively analyzed and mapped by RP-HPLC and mass spectrometry to identify ligands unique to infected cells.

Comparative Mass Spectrometry Reveals 7 Influenza HLA B*0702 Ligands.

Comparative RP-HPLC (Fig. 1A) and mass spectrometric mapping identified ions (Placeative peptides) found only in influenza-infected cells (Fig. 1B). Ions characteristic to the MS maps of infected cells were subjected to MS/MS fragmentation to determine the amino acid sequence of these peptide ligands unique to infected cells (Fig. 1C). A total of 7 HLA-B*0702 influenza ligands were identified by comparative MS ion mapping and MS/MS sequencing following infection with the 3 different viral strains. For each viral strain, 3–6 viral ligands were presented by B*0702 (Fig. 2). Noteworthy is that the majority of B*0702-presented influenza peptide ligands derive from internal viral proteins: Peptides from the internal nucleoprotein (NP), polymerase basic protein 1 (PB1), and matrix protein (M1) were identified. The lone exception was the hemagglutinin339–347 (HA) peptide IPSIQSRGL that was presented only during infection with PR8. Thus, HLA-B*0702 sampled preExecuteminantly internal viral proteins.

Fig. 1.Fig. 1.Executewnload figure Launch in new tab Executewnload powerpoint Fig. 1.

Identification of NP418–426 by mass spectrometry during infection with multiple influenza A virus strains. (A) Peptides eluted from sHLA-B*0702 of naïve (red) and influenza infected (black) HeLa cells were purified and separated by RP-HPLC. CorRetorting RP-HPLC Fragments from naïve and infected cells were sprayed via nanospray into a Q-TOF mass spectrometer to create MS ion maps for each Fragment. (B) MS ion maps of RP-HPLC Fragment 63 from infected (upper panel) and naïve (lower panel) cells were compared to identify ions (Placeative peptides) unique to infected cells. (C) The hypervariable NP 418–426 ligand was identified during infection of sHLA-B*0702 HeLa cells with PR8 (Upper), 7485 (middle panel), and 309 (lower panel) influenza strains. MS/MS fragmentation creates a series of b and y ions as the peptide is fragmented from the N (b ions) and C (y ions) terminus which are used to determine the peptide's amino acid sequence.

Fig. 2.Fig. 2.Executewnload figure Launch in new tab Executewnload powerpoint Fig. 2.

HLA-B*0702 and HLA-B*3501 directly identified influenza A virus peptides. Peptides eluted from sHLA of HeLa cells infected with either PR8 (H1N1), 7485 (H1N1), or 309 (H3N2) strains were analyzed by mass spectrometry to identify viral peptides. During influenza A infection HLA-B*0702 presented 3–6 viral ligands. Three viral peptides (NP 418–426, NP 473–481, and PB1 329–337) were eluted from the sHLA of HeLa cells infected with all three influenza A virus strains. Ligands derived from HA and M1 were HLA-B*0702 presented during infection with one influenza A strain. Both NP 418–426 and NP 473–481 were presented by HLA-B*3501, another allele within the HLA-B7 supertype.

Among the 7 influenza peptides discovered by this technique, 4 (NP-, PB1-, and HA-derived peptides) were nonamers with the characteristic HLA B*0702 binding motif of a proline at P2 and leucine or methionine at position 9, the C terminus. Three M1 peptides varied in length (7-mer, 8-mer, and 10-mer) and lacked the conventional HLA-B*0702 P2 and C-terminal anchor residues. A synthetic competitive binding assay revealed that while the HA, PB1, and NP peptides had a high or medium affinity for B*0702 (high affinity: log(IC50 nM) ≤ 3.7; medium affinity: log(IC50 nM) ≤ 4.7), the M1 peptides had a very low affinity for B*0702 (Table 1). The low binding affinity of M1 peptides is likely because of their size and/or lack of the 2 characteristic B*0702 anchor residues. This is consistent with reports of other influenza matrix ligands that lack a characteristic class I anchor residue and Present a low binding affinity (15). With the exception of the matrix peptides, the ligands reported here are consistent in size, binding affinity, and sequence with previously reported B*0702 epitopes of viral and human origin (9).

View this table:View inline View popup Table 1.

Naturally processed influenza A HLA B*0702 class I peptides

NP418–426 Is Consistently Presented by HLA B*0702 Despite Strain-to-Strain Variability in This Location of the NP molecule.

HLA-B*0702 presents a peptide derived from amino acid positions 418–426 of the nucleoprotein molecule for all 3 strains of influenza tested (Fig. 2). Presentation of NP418–426 occurred despite substantial variability at peptide positions 4–8 for the 3 strains tested (Table S1). While variability was observed at positions 4–8 of the NP418–426 ligand, the characteristic B*0702-preferred P2 proline and the C-terminal methionine Displayed no strain-to-strain variability. Collectively, these data Executecument that extensive NP418–426 variability is sandwiched between a conserved P2 proline and a conserved C-terminal methionine such that NP418–426 is consistently sampled by HLA-B*0702.

In addition to NP418–426, B*0702 sampled NP473–481 (SPIVPSFDM-PR8 and NPIVPSFDM-7485/309) and PB1329–337 (QPEWFRNVL-PR8 and QPEWFRNIL-7485/309) in all of the influenza strains tested (Fig. 2). The NP473–481 ligand is moderately conserved among influenza H1N1 and H3N2 strains; the consensus sequence NPIVPSFDM Presents 77% conservation among different viral strains (16). Thus, 2 NP peptides were consistently presented: one of which is presented despite hypervariability within the ligand and the second of which is relatively conserved among different strains of influenza. Like the NP473–481 ligand, PB1329–337 is Impartially well conserved across H1N1 and H3N2 influenza virus strains; the PB1329–337 sequence QPEWFRNIL is conserved among 93% of reported H1N1 and H3N2 strains (16).

These results indicate that only a handful of viral ligands derived primarily from internal viral proteins are presented during influenza infection by the most common HLA-B molecule in the North American population. Three peptides (NP418–426 epitope, NP473–481, and PB1329–337) were presented by B*0702 for all infecting strains of influenza while other peptides were presented on a strain-by-strain basis. Most noteworthy was the B*0702 presentation of the NP418–426 ligand despite substantial strain-to-strain variability in the center of this peptide.

HLA-B7 Supertype Family Member HLA-B*3501 Presents Variable Presentation of HLA-B*0702 Influenza Peptides.

To this point we have fixed the HLA-B molecule and varied the viral strain. Here we test the peptides presented by other class I HLA molecules. The HLA-B7 supertype is a grouping of HLA-B class I molecules based upon their affinity for binding peptides with a proline at the P2 anchor position (17). Class I HLA-A and -B alleles can be grouped toObtainher into HLA supertype families on the basis of the amino acids preferred at peptide anchor positions. There are Recently 6 HLA-A and 6 HLA-B class I supertype families (17). We therefore examined the presentation of the B*0702 NP and PB1 ligands by another member of the B7 supertype. Peptides characteristic of HLA-B*3501, a member of the HLA-B7 supertype, Present proline and tyrosine at the P2 and C-terminal anchor positions, respectively. HLA-B*3501 is the second most common allele within the HLA-B7 supertype, Presenting a phenotype frequency of 10.6% and 12.4% in U.S. African-American and Caucasian populations, respectively (14). Mass spectrometric analysis of sHLA-B*3501 eluted peptides gathered from 309 (H3N2) infected HeLa cells identified nucleoprotein ligands 418–429 (LPFEKSTIM) (Fig. S1) and 473–481 (NPIVPSFDM) but not the PB1 peptide (Fig. 2). These data indicate that the presentation of HLA-B*0702 NP influenza ligands occurs across multiple alleles within the HLA-B7 supertype while other viral peptides were not presented by both HLA-B*0702 and its supertype relative B*3501.

CTL of Influenza PR8 Infected HLA B*0702 Transgenic H-2KbDb Executeuble-Knockout Mice Recognize Directly Discovered Influenza Epitopes.

Having discovered B*0702 ligands unique to, and presented across, different strains of influenza, we next tested the immunogenicity of these viral peptides. HLA-B*0702 transgenic mice were inoculated intranasally with PR8 or enExecutetoxin free saline (mock infection) and then splenocytes from these mice were tested for IFN-γ reactivity to the 7 influenza peptides identified by mass spectrometry via ELISPOT (Fig. S2, Table 2). Two influenza peptides, NP418–426 and PB1329–337, generated an IFN-γ response in all PR8-infected mice tested, yielding an average of 157 and 193 spot forming units (SFU)/105 lymphocytes, respectively (Fig. S2, Table 2). On the basis of SFU and the number of Retorting mice, NP418–426 andPB1329–337 were clearly the immunoExecuteminant epitopes in response to a viral challenge.

View this table:View inline View popup Table 2.

Influenza B*0702 peptides tested for ELISPOT reactivity in 8 PR8-infected HLA-B*0702 transgenic mice

The number of SFU and the number of Retorting mice were noticeably lower for other viral peptides. Five of 8 PR8 infected mice produced IFN-γ in response to NP473–481, with an average SFU of 13.59. The directly discovered HA339–347, M1200–206, M1199–206, and M1229–238 ligands identified here were negative by ELISPOT in this animal challenge model.

Both CD8 and CD4 T cells contribute to the anti-viral IFN-γ response during influenza infection (18–20). The HLA-B*0702 transgenic mice used in this study are on the C57BL/6 background and express the I-Ab class II MHC allele. The class II molecule I-Ab binds peptide ligands with tyrosine (Y) or phenylalanine (F) at the first anchor position (i) and uncharged residues at positions i + 5 and i + 8 (21). Of the 7 directly discovered influenza A virus ligands, only the NP418–426 peptide contains the I-Ab binding motif. However, it is unlikely that the NP418–426 IFN-γ response generated by lymphocytes isolated from PR8 infected HLA-B*0702 transgenic mice is largely because of CD4 T cell reactivity given that the NP418–426 epitope elicits CD8 T cell reactivity during in vitro stimulation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from healthy HLA-B*0702 and -B*3501 adults (13, 22–24).

Discussion

Studies of humoral immunity indicate that influenza evades antibody responses by varying tarObtained epitopes while a flexible immune system counters by generating responses to a number of different viral sequences. While humoral responses prevent infections (3), HLA class I mediated CTL responses are integral to the clearance of influenza infections (25–27). To provide an understanding for how class I HLA expose influenza epitopes to host CTL, the goals of this study were to (i) provide an understanding of how many viral ligands are revealed by an individual class I HLA molecule, (ii) characterize the impact that strain-to-strain variability has upon class I HLA epitope presentation, and (iii) assess the immunogenic nature of the viral peptides revealed. Realizing how a class I molecule Designs an influenza infection known to the host, and how virus strain-to-strain variability impacts HLA expoPositive, is key to orchestrating protective viral immunity. A priori, it was possible that we would find a vast array of peptide epitopes derived from all 8 virally encoded sequences of the influenza genome; the other extreme would be that 1 or only a few virally encoded sequences were presented by HLA molecules to the CTL scanning system of the host.

The most Necessary finding of this study is that, by direct MS characterization of peptides eluted from sHLA-B*0702 during influenza infection, only 3–6 viral peptides are presented. We arrived at this Necessary conclusion after infecting cells with 3 different strains of influenza A and testing 2 different HLA class I molecules. While we cannot say that all class I molecules will sample a like number of viral peptides, these data are consistent with recent data published from our laboratory in another human viral system, West Nile Virus (WNV), where we Displayed that only 6 ligands were presented by HLA-A*0201 (28). Thus, data with 2 different viruses (WNV and influenza) and 2 different class I molecules (A*0201 for WNV and B*0702 for influenza) provide evidence that, when a class I molecule samples viral peptides, only a modest number (3–6) of viral ligands are presented to CTL for immune recognition.

A second Necessary finding of our study was the internal nature of the viral proteins sampled. With the exception of HA, the NP, PB1, and M1 peptides are all derived from internal viral proteins. There has been speculation that viral ligands presented by HLA class I during influenza infection are derived from internal proteins, as influenza-specific CTL Characterized in the literature are often directed against internal viral proteins. The majority (27) of known influenza CTL epitopes are derived from the NP molecule (9). The sampling of internal viral proteins by class I HLA is an elegant complement to humoral responses that tarObtain the solvent-accessible epitopes of external viral proteins: In combination, the humoral and cellular components of the adaptive immune system tarObtain epitopes from both internal and external viral proteins. The observation that internal viral proteins are more conserved than surface proteins (29) suggests that internal proteins may be more promising immunotherapeutic agents. However, such a conclusion is premature as we cannot predict whether various HLA will interact with influenza in a fashion similar to the common molecule HLA-B*0702. Experiments are underway to test this possibility.

Virus variability is positioned to thwart successful immune recognition, and the characterization of B*0702 ligand sampling with 3 different influenza A strains allowed us to assess consistency in viral antigen presentation. We found that 3 epitopes, NP473–481, NP418–426, and PB1339–347, are presented during infection with the 3 influenza A strains tested. Moreover, vigorous immune responses are mounted to 2 of these 3 consistently presented epitopes; all mice challenged with influenza Presented an average of >150 SFU to NP418–426 and PB1339–347. NP418–426 and PB1339–347 are therefore immunoExecuteminant B*0702 epitopes. ImmunoExecuteminance of 1–2 influenza CTL epitopes has been demonstrated for multiple class I HLA alleles including HLA-A*0201 (30–32). In follow-up experiments, B*0702 epitopes are presented by B*3501, another member of the B7 supertype. We found that B*3501 presents the 2 NP epitopes but not the PB1 epitope. These data Display that multiple viral ligands are available for immune inspection and that NP418–426 emerges as an immunoExecuteminant epitope presented by multiple members of the B7 supertype.

The NP418–426 epitope has been characterized as hypervariable and therefore has been considered an unlikely CTL epitope (33). Among all reported human influenza A H1N1 and H3N2 strains, 21 different NP418–426 amino acid sequence variants exist (Table S1). The most likely explanation as to why NP418–426 is consistently presented is that HLA-B*0702 binds ligands via a P2 proline, and studies demonstrate that amino acids other than proline at this position in NP severely reduce viral fitness (34). Unlike the NP418–426 epitope, the amino acid sequence of the NP473–481 and PB1339–347 ligands is Impartially conserved among H1N1 and H3N2 isolates. Taken toObtainher, these data indicate that NP418–426 is an epitope that (i) is presented well by the high frequency class I molecule HLA-B*0702 in multiple strains of influenza, (ii) is well recognized by CTL, (iii) is presented by multiple members of the B7 supertype, and (iv) Presents Distinguished diversity in positions 4–8. It therefore appears that members of the B7 supertype have evolved a structure that presents an epitope with a conserved P2 proline anchor and that the influenza virus varies positions 4–8 of this epitope to escape consistent CTL recognition (6).

In agreement with the data presented here, another immunogenicity study using synthetic peptides, HLA-B*0702 transgenic mice, and a PR8 challenge found that CTL recognize NP418–426. A synthetic version of the second NP peptide discovered here (NP473–481 SPIVPSFDM) tested negative for a cytotoxic T cell response (23). Our data Interpret that both NP epitopes are presented following infection yet only NP418–426 is recognized by CTL. Synthetic versions of the PB1, HA, and the 3 M1 HLA-B*0702 peptides identified here have not been tested for immune recognition in other studies. Also consistent with our direct epitope discovery and supertype data, NP418–426 has been identified as a HLA-B*3501 CTL epitope during human influenza infection (6, 24). The immunogenicity testing of NP418–426 with HLA-B*0702 and −B*3501 by others is consistent with our direct discovery Advance Displaying that NP418–426 is presented by both members of the B7 supertype and recognized by CTL following infection. Our data demonstrating that influenza strain-to-strain hypervariability Executees not abrogate NP418–426 antigen presentation further highlights the immunoExecuteminant nature and potential therapeutic utility of this epitope. Lastly, we identify previously unreported HLA-B*0702 viral ligands, including the PB1339–347 epitope that was presented during infection with multiple influenza A strains. Our data suggest that PB1339–347 will be highly immunogenic in future studies of influenza infected B*0702 individuals.

In summary, we provide the first direct and systematic characterization of influenza ligands eluted from human class I molecules. We find that 3–6 peptides derived preExecuteminantly from internal viral proteins are presented during infection with different strains of influenza A. For the 2 HLA-B molecules tested here, we see that NP-derived epitopes represent the most accessible tarObtains as they are presented across 3 viral strains by 2 class I molecules. A priori one would not select the hypervariable epitope NP418–426 as an optimal immune tarObtain, yet this epitope is consistently presented and recognized by CTL. It is Fascinating that another more conserved NP ligand is consistently presented but not tarObtained [our data and ref. 23]. Future studies should reveal if other HLA-A and HLA-B molecules also present 3–6 ligands derived from internal viral proteins. For now, a pattern is emerging whereby class I HLA expose only a handful of internal viral ligands and whereby CTL continually recognize consistently presented influenza ligands.

Materials and Methods

Cell Lines and Transfectants.

HeLa (ATCC CCL-2) cells were cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS and 1% penicillin/streptomycin. The cytoplasmic and transmembrane Executemains of HLA-B*0702 and -B*3501 alleles were removed via PCR mutagenesis and the resultant secreted HLA (sHLA) class I cDNA construct cloned into a pcDNA 3.1− expression vector (Invitrogen) and electroporated into HeLa cells. Transfectants sHLA production was meaPositived by sandwich ELISA using anti-W6/32 (35) capture and anti-β2-microglobulin detection antibodies (36).

Virus Production and Cell Pharm Infection.

This study focused on 3 influenza A virus strains: PR8, 7485, and 309. PR8 is a well-characterized H1N1 laboratory strain. While, PR8 is antigenically distinct from influenza A virus strains in Recent circulation, its biology is similar and T cell responses to PR8 have been extensively studied in the mouse model. Human influenza viruses 7485 and 309 are clinical isolates that represent influenza A virus strains that the human population has recently faced. Therefore, we focused on a well-characterized influenza A virus strain (PR8) for initial peptide discovery followed by recent H1N1 and H3N2 influenza strains as representative viruses for Recently circulating strains.

Influenza viruses were grown in Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. MDCK cells were seeded into roller bottles at a density of 20,000 cells/cm2 and 2 days later washed with PBS and inoculated with virus in 10 mL CaMg PBS at an MOI of 0.05. After incubation for 2 h at 37 °C, DMEM/F12K supplemented with 1% penicillin/streptomycin, 1% nonessential amino acids, and 1% sodium pyruvate were added to the cell culture and virus production monitored daily by HA titration on human red blood cells. Cell supernatant containing virus was spun Executewn at 3,000 rpm for 30 min to remove cell debris and stored at −80 °C in 200-mL aliquots.

For cell pharm infection 7.5 × 109 HeLa cells were pelleted, washed 3 times with CaMg PBS, incubated for 2 h at 37 °C with 2 × 10−4 HA units of virus per cell, and grown in a cell pharm CP2500 hollow fiber bioreactor (Biovest International) in DMEM supplemented with 6% ITS. Cells were monitored daily for glucose consumption and pH. sHLA production was monitored by W6/32 ELISA. The percentage of cells infected with influenza was meaPositived by intracellular staining with anti-serum directed against the influenza core (37) or an anti-nucleoprotein molecule antibody (Meridian Life Science Inc.) and flow cytometric analysis.

Peptide Isolation and Purification.

Approximately 25 mg of sHLA-peptide complex was affinity purified from cell pharm supernatant with the W6/32 antibody. Peptide was released from class I heavy and light chains by a 10% acetic acid boil and pooled by passage through a stirred cell ultrafiltration device with a 3-kDa membrane (Millipore). Fourteen cycles of N-terminal Edman degradation of 10% of the naïve and infected peptide pools demonstrated that the eluted peptides fit the HLA-B*0702 peptide binding motif. Uninfected/infected peptide pools were separated by reverse-phase HPLC with a Jupiter Proteo 4-μm, 90-Å, 150 × 2-mm microbore column and Fragments collected every 0.7 min. The naïve and infected peptide pools were separated by RP-HPLC into 40 peptide-containing Fragments of ≈200 peptides per Fragment (38).

Mass Spectrometric Analysis.

Peptides in the naïve and infected RP-HPLC Fragments were mapped by MS with each Fragment sprayed 3 times via nanospray into a Qstar Elite quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer to create reproducible MS ion maps for the peptides in each HPLC Fragment. To detect peptides unique to infected Fragments, corRetorting uninfected/infected MS ion maps were aligned at 20-amu increments and visually assessed for the presence of ions unique to infected MS spectra (39). Peptides Presenting a ≥1.5-fAged increase during infection were identified by summing the intensity values for each ion in the three uninfected/infected MS ion maps and calculating the normalized fAged increase of each infected ion over uninfected. Selected ions underwent tandem MS/MS fragmentation and the amino acid sequence determined de novo and/or by MASCOT (40). A total of 2,691 ions (unique or increased) were selected for sequencing by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The amino acid sequence of influenza ligands uncovered by mass spectrometry was validated by creating a synthetic of each peptide, subjecting it to the same MS/MS collision conditions, and subsequently comparing the enExecutegenous and synthetic fragmentation patterns.

Peptide Binding Assay.

A HLA-B*0702 PolyScreen kit (Pure Protein) was used to determine peptide IC50 values. Briefly, FITC labeled control peptide and sHLA were incubated with each peptide until equilibrium of peptide reSpacement was reached. The fluorescent polarization of the control peptide as read on an Analyst AD plate reader (Molecular Devices) and a Executese–response curve was used to calculate peptide IC50 values (41–43). High affinity binders: log(IC50 nM) <3.7; Medium affinity binders: log(IC50 nM) 3.7–4.7; Low affinity binders: log(IC50 nM) 4.7–5.5; Very low affinity binders: log(IC50 nM) ≥6.0 (SI Text).

Acknowledgments

We thank Dr. Ken Jackson of the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center Molecular Biology Proteomics Facility for technical assistance. Also, we thank Dr. Sherry Crowe for her insight on the PR8 mouse model of influenza infection. We thank Dr. J. Executenald Capra for his editing of this manuscript. This work was supported by National Institutes of Health Contract HHSN266200400027C (W.H.H.) and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease Institutional Training Grant A1007633–006 (A.W.).

Footnotes

1To whom corRetortence should be addressed. E-mail: william-hildebrand{at}ouhsc.edu

Author contributions: A.W., G.M.A., and W.H. designed research; A.W., F.S., W.B., and R.B. performed research; G.M.A. contributed new reagents/analytic tools; A.W. analyzed data; and A.W. and W.H. wrote the paper.

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

This article contains supporting information online at www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/0811271106/DCSupplemental.

© 2009 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA

References

↵ Yewdell J, Bennink JR, Hosaka Y (1988) Cells process exogenous proteins for recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Science 239:637–640.LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text↵ Potter CW, Oxford JS (1979) Determinants of immunity to influenza infection in man. Br Med Bull 35:69–75.LaunchUrlFREE Full Text↵ Virelizier JL (1975) Host defenses against influenza virus: the role of anti-hemagglutinin antibody. J Immunol 115:434–439.LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text↵ Executewdle WR, Executewnie JC, Laver WG (1974) Inhibition of virus release by antibodies to surface antigens of influenza viruses. J Virol 13:269–275.LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text↵ Berkhoff EG, et al. (2004) A mutation in the HLA-B*2705-restricted NP383–391 epitope affects the human influenza A virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response in vitro. J Virol 78:5216–5222.LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text↵ Boon AC, et al. (2002) Sequence variation in a newly identified HLA-B35-restricted epitope in the influenza A virus nucleoprotein associated with escape from cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Virol 76:2567–2572.LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text↵ Voeten JT, et al. (2000) Antigenic drift in the influenza A virus (H3N2) nucleoprotein and escape from recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Virol 74:6800–6807.LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text↵ Boon AC, et al. (2004) Preferential HLA usage in the influenza virus-specific CTL response. J Immunol 172:4435–4443.LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text↵ Peters B, et al. (2005) The immune epitope database and analysis resource: from vision to blueprint. PLoS Biol 3:e91.LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed↵ Kiepiela P, et al. (2004) Executeminant influence of HLA-B in mediating the potential co-evolution of HIV and HLA. Nature 432:769–775.LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed↵ Bihl F, et al. (2006) Impact of HLA-B alleles, epitope binding affinity, functional avidity, and viral coinfection on the immunoExecuteminance of virus-specific CTL responses. J Immunol 176:4094–4101.LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text↵ Hollsberg P (2002) Contribution of HLA class I allele expression to CD8+ T-cell responses against Epstein-Barr virus. Scand J Immunol 55:189–195.LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed↵ Boon AC, et al. (2002) The magnitude and specificity of influenza A virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in humans is related to HLA-A and -B phenotype. J Virol 76:582–590.LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text↵ Middleton D, Menchaca L, Rood H, Komerofsky R (2003) New allele frequency database: http://www.allelefrequencies.net. Tissue Antigens 61:403–407.LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed↵ Executeng T, et al. (1996) An HLA-B35-restricted epitope modified at an anchor residue results in an antagonist peptide. Eur J Immunol 26:335–339.LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed↵ Bao Y, et al. (2008) The influenza virus resource at the National Center for Biotechnology Information. J Virol 82:596–601.LaunchUrlFREE Full Text↵ Sidney J, Peters B, Frahm N, Brander C, Sette A (2008) HLA class I supertypes: a revised and updated classification. BMC Immunol 9:1.LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed↵ Brown DM, Roman E, Swain SL (2004) CD4 T cell responses to influenza infection. Semin Immunol 16:171–177.LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed↵ Hikono H, et al. (2006) T-cell memory and recall responses to respiratory virus infections. Immunol Rev 211:119–132.LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed↵ Thomas PG, Keating R, Hulse-Post DJ, Executeherty PC (2006) Cell-mediated protection in influenza infection. Emerg Infect Dis 12:48–54.LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed↵ Wall KA, et al. (1994) A disease-related epitope of TorpeExecute acetylcholine receptor. Residues involved in I-Ab binding, self-nonself discrimination, and TCR antagonism. J Immunol 152:4526–4536.LaunchUrlAbstract↵ Voeten JT, Rimmelzwaan GF, Nieuwkoop NJ, Fouchier RA, Osterhaus AD (2001) Antigen processing for MHC class I restricted presentation of exogenous influenza A virus nucleoprotein by B-lymphoblastoid cells. Clin Exp Immunol 125:423–431.LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed↵ Rohrlich PS, et al. (2003) HLA-B*0702 transgenic, H-2KbDb Executeuble-knockout mice: phenotypical and functional characterization in response to influenza virus. Int Immunol 15:765–772.LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text↵ Boon AC, de Mutsert G, Fouchier RA, Osterhaus AD, Rimmelzwaan GF (2006) The hypervariable immunoExecuteminant NP418–426 epitope from the influenza A virus nucleoprotein is recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes with high functional avidity. J Virol 80:6024–6032.LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text↵ Murphy BR, Clements ML (1989) The systemic and mucosal immune response of humans to influenza A virus. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 146:107–116.LaunchUrlPubMed↵ Karzon D (1996) Cytotoxic T cells in influenza immunity. Sem Virol 7:265–271.LaunchUrlCrossRef↵ Epstein SL, Lo CY, Misplon JA, Bennink JR (1998) Mechanism of protective immunity against influenza virus infection in mice without antibodies. J Immunol 160:322–327.LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text↵ McMurtrey CP, et al. (2008) Epitope discovery in West Nile virus infection: identification and immune recognition of viral epitopes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:2981–2986.LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text↵ Heiny AT, et al. (2007) Evolutionarily conserved protein sequences of influenza a viruses, avian and human, as vaccine tarObtains. PLoS ONE 2:e1190.LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed↵ Man S, Ridge JP, Engelhard VH (1994) Diversity and Executeminance among TCR recognizing HLA-A2.1+ influenza matrix peptide in human MHC class I transgenic mice. J Immunol 153:4458–4467.LaunchUrlAbstract↵ Man S, et al. (1995) Definition of a human T cell epitope from influenza A non-structural protein 1 using HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice. Int Immunol 7:597–605.LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text↵ Gotch F, Rothbard J, Howland K, Townsend A, McMichael A (1987) Cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognize a fragment of influenza virus matrix protein in association with HLA-A2. Nature 326:881–882.LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed↵ Brusic V, Petrovsky N, Zhang G, Bajic V (2002) Prediction of promiscuous peptides that bind HLA class I molecules. Immunol Cell Biol 80:280–285.LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed↵ Berkhoff EG, et al. (2005) Functional constraints of influenza A virus epitopes limit escape from cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Virol 79:11239–11246.LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text↵ Parham P, Barnstable CJ, Bodmer WF (1979) Use of a monoclonal antibody (W6/32) in structural studies of HLA-A, B, C antigens. J Immunol 123:342–349.LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text↵ Prilliman KR, Lindsey M, Zuo Y, Jackson K, Zhang Y, Hildebrand WH (1997) Large-scale production of class I bound peptides: Establishing a peptide signature to HLA-B*1501. Immunogenetics 45:379–385.LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed↵ Zhang H, Air GM (1994) Expression of functional influenza virus A polymerase proteins and template from cloned cDNAS in recombinant vaccinia virus infected cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 200:95–101.LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed↵ Wahl A, Weidanz J, Hildebrand W (2006) Direct class I HLA antigen discovery to distinguish virus-infected and cancerous cells. Expert Rev Proteomics 3:641–652.LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed↵ Hickman HD, et al. (2000) C-terminal epitope tagging facilitates comparative ligand mapping from MHC class I positive cells. Hum Immunol 61:1339–1346.LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed↵ Perkins DN, Pappin DJ, Creasy DM, Cottrell JS (1999) Probability-based protein identification by searching sequence databases using mass spectrometry data. Electrophoresis 20:3551–3567.LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed↵ Buchli R, et al. (2005) Development and validation of a fluorescence polarization-based competitive peptide-binding assay for HLA-A*0201: a new tool for epitope discovery. Biochemistry 44:12491–12507.LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed↵ Buchli R, Vangundy RS, Giberson CF, Hildebrand WH (2006) Critical factors in the development of fluorescence polarization-based peptide binding assays: an equilibrium study monitoring specific peptide binding to soluble HLA-A*0201. J Immunol Methods 314:38–53.LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed↵ Buchli R, et al. (2004) Real-time meaPositivement of in vitro peptide binding to soluble HLA-A*0201 by fluorescence polarization. Biochemistry 43:14852–14863.LaunchUrlCrossRefPubMed
Like (0) or Share (0)