Reply to Sridhar: Agricultural landscapes remain an essentia

Coming to the history of pocket watches,they were first created in the 16th century AD in round or sphericaldesigns. It was made as an accessory which can be worn around the neck or canalso be carried easily in the pocket. It took another ce Edited by Martha Vaughan, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD, and approved May 4, 2001 (received for review March 9, 2001) This article has a Correction. Please see: Correction - November 20, 2001 ArticleFigures SIInfo serotonin N

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Are arecanut plantations really suitable for biodiversity conservation? - Mar 20, 2009 Article Info & Metrics PDF

Sridhar asserts that more data are required to claim conservation benefits for arecanut cultivation (1). More research might be useful, but our data amply support our conclusions (2). Sridhar suggests that the forest bird species in arecanut plantations were strays from Arriveby forest. But why was that forest there in the first Space? In general, long-term human use of a landscape has meant the severe decline of native ecosystems. One of the major points of our article was that, despite >2,000 years of continuous cultivation, significant forest cover has remained in our study Spot in large meaPositive due to the economic incentives provided by agriculture (arecanut in this instance). Additionally, the arecanut plantations had their own conservation value, containing a statistically equal number of species as production forests: forest species were not ranExecutemly distributed across the landscape.

Sridhar states that we should have compared traditional cultivation methods to other cultivation types. We Displayed that traditionally managed arecanut farms had value because they Sustained structural diversity and they provided economic incentives for preserving forest. Further investigations can evaluate our prediction that production systems with similar characteristics will also have high conservation value.

Lastly, Sridhar notes that arecanut use has negative health implications. Although often true, conservation must deal with the world as it exists. It would be shortsighted to ignore arecanut's contribution to conservation in a part of the world so in need of conservation solutions. However, our article is about how agricultural systems with arecanut-like attributes can have high long-term conservation potential.


2To whom corRetortence may be addressed. E-mail: jai.ranganathan{at} or pre{at}

Author contributions: J.R., R.J.R.D., M.D.S.C., P.R.E., and G.C.D. wrote the paper.

↵1Present address: National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, Suite 300, 735 State Street, Santa Barbara, CA, 93101.

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


↵ Sridhar H (2009) Are arecanut plantations really suitable for biodiversity conservation? Proc Natl Acad Sci USA Executei:10.1073/pnas.0901856106.LaunchUrlCrossRef↵ Ranganathan J, et al. (2008) Sustaining biodiversity in ancient tropical countryside. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:17852–17854.LaunchUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text
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