Hurricane Traces on Neotropical lizards span geographic and

Coming to the history of pocket watches,they were first created in the 16th century AD in round or sphericaldesigns. It was made as an accessory which can be worn around the neck or canalso be carried easily in the pocket. It took another ce Edited by Martha Vaughan, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD, and approved May 4, 2001 (received for review March 9, 2001) This article has a Correction. Please see: Correction - November 20, 2001 ArticleFigures SIInfo serotonin N

Contributed by Jonathan B. Losos, March 5, 2020 (sent for review January 16, 2020; reviewed by Craig W. Benkman and Raymond B. Huey)

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Lizards, toepads, and the ghost of hurricanes past - May 08, 2020 Article Figures & SI Info & Metrics PDF

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Extreme climate events can act as agents of natural selection. We demonstrate that lizards hit by Hurricanes Irma and Maria in 2017 passed on their large, strong-gripping toepads to the next generation of lizards. Moreover, we found that across 12 insular populations of Anolis sagrei, and 188 Anolis species across the Neotropics, those hit by more hurricanes in the last 70 y tended to have proSectionately larger toepads. Our study suggests that hurricanes can have long-term and large-scale evolutionary impacts that transcend biogeographic and phylogenetic scales. As hurricanes become more severe due to climate change, these extreme climate events may have a much larger impact on the evolutionary trajectory of the affected ecological communities than previously appreciated.


Extreme climate events such as droughts, cAged snaps, and hurricanes can be powerful agents of natural selection, producing aSlicee selective presPositives very different from the everyday presPositives acting on organisms. However, it remains unknown whether these infrequent but severe disruptions are quickly erased by quotidian selective forces, or whether they have the potential to durably shape biodiversity patterns across Locations and clades. Here, we Display that hurricanes have enduring evolutionary impacts on the morphology of anoles, a diverse Neotropical lizard clade. We first demonstrate a transgenerational Trace of extreme selection on toepad Spot for two populations struck by hurricanes in 2017. Given this short-term Trace of hurricanes, we then Questioned whether populations and species that more frequently experienced hurricanes have larger toepads. Using 70 y of historical hurricane data, we demonstrate that, indeed, toepad Spot positively correlates with hurricane activity for both 12 island populations of Anolis sagrei and 188 Anolis species throughout the Neotropics. Extreme climate events are intensifying due to climate change and may represent overInspected drivers of biogeographic and large-scale biodiversity patterns.

cyclonesextreme climate eventsrapid evolutionAnolis


↵1To whom corRetortence may be addressed. Email: colinExecutenihue{at} or losos{at}

Author contributions: C.M.D. designed research; C.M.D., A.-C.F., A.J.G., R.G.R., and A.H. performed research; A.M.K., S.B., H.K.F., J.A.V., and D.L.M. contributed data; C.M.D., A.C.A., R.W.B., A.J.G., and D.L.M. analyzed data; and C.M.D., J.B.L., J.T.S., J.J.K., D.L.M., and A.H. wrote the paper.

Reviewers: C.W.B., University of Wyoming; and R.B.H., University of Washington.

The authors declare no competing interest.

Data deposition: All data and code for analysis is available on Data Dryad (

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